Best's Insurance Professional Resources

Your Online Portal for Claims Industry Information

Best's Insurance Professional Resources

Your Online Portal for Claims Industry Information



Best's Recommended Insurance Attorneys

General Defense


Marshall Dennehey Warner Coleman & Goggin

The Union Trust Building, 501 Grant Street, Suite 700, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15219

Established: 1993

Practice Areas

  • Affordable Care Act
  • Amusements, Sports and Recreation Liability
  • Appellate Advocacy and Post-Trial Practice
  • Architectural, Engineering and Construction Defect Litigation
  • Asbestos and Mass Tort Litigation
  • Automobile Liability
  • Aviation and Complex Litigation
  • Behavioral Health Risk and Liability
  • Birth & Catastrophic Injury Litigation
  • Class Action Litigation
  • Commercial Litigation
  • Construction Injury Litigation
  • Consumer Financial Services Litigation & Compliance
  • COVID-19/Coronavirus
  • Electronic Medical Record and Audit Trail Litigation
  • Emergency Medical Services
  • Employment Law
  • Environmental & Toxic Tort Litigation
  • Fraud/Special Investigation
  • General Liability
  • Health Care Liability
  • Hospitality and Liquor Liability
  • Insurance Agents & Brokers Liability
  • Insurance Services
  • Intellectual Property, Technology and Media Litigation
  • Long-Term Care Liability
  • Maritime Litigation
  • Medical Device and Pharmaceutical Liability
  • Medicare Set-Aside
  • New York Construction and Labor Law
  • Personal Injury Protection (PIP) Litigation
  • Premises and Retail Liability
  • Privacy and Data Security
  • Product Liability
  • Professional Liability
  • Property Litigation
  • Public Entity and Civil Rights Litigation
  • Real Estate E&O Liability
  • School Leaders' Liability
  • Securities and Investments Professional Liability
  • Social Services & Human Services Liability
  • Telehealth and Telemedicine
  • Trucking & Transportation Liability
  • White Collar Crime
  • Workers' Compensation

 Back To Top

Video Profile

 Back To Top


About Us

Founded in 1962 and headquartered in Philadelphia, PA, Marshall Dennehey Warner Coleman & Goggin is a leading civil defense litigation law firm that represents and advises insurers, self-insured entities, and professionals in a wide range of professional liability, casualty, health law, employment, and workers' compensation matters. With more than 470 attorneys in some 30 distinct practice groups, located in 20 offices throughout Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Ohio, Florida and New York, Marshall Dennehey is uniquely positioned to assist their clients in both avoiding damaging litigation as well as providing them with a vigorous defense in the event of claims and suits made against them.

The Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania office of Marshall Dennehey Warner Coleman & Goggin opened in May of 1993. The office is comprised of a civil litigation group and a workers' compensation group. The majority of the attorneys have enjoyed a long standing professional relationship in the practice of defense litigation. All of the attorneys are natives or long-time residents of the Pittsburgh area. From its inception, the Pittsburgh office has expanded steadily with the addition of experienced Western Pennsylvania attorneys to both the civil liability and workers' compensation practices.

Pittsburgh is a naturally convenient location in which to quarter a litigation practice serving the Western Pennsylvania counties of Allegheny, Beaver, Butler, Lawrence, Clarion, Armstrong, Jefferson, Indiana, Westmoreland, Fayette, Washington, Greene, Somerset, Bedford, Blair, Cambria and Clearfield. The United States District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania is located in Pittsburgh. In addition, Pittsburgh is the seat of the Allegheny County Court of Common Pleas, which operates one of the busiest civil dockets in the Commonwealth's court system. A large majority of the workers' compensation claims and civil liability suits filed in the entire Western Pennsylvania region are litigated either in Pittsburgh or within a short drive of our office.

In addition to providing counsel in Western Pennsylvania, six attorneys in our Pittsburgh office are admitted to the bar in West Virginia. Here, they represent clients in both the state courts and before the United States District Courts for the Northern and Southern Districts of West Virginia.

The skill, experience and personality of the individual attorney are the constituent elements of effective legal representation. The professional experience of the attorneys in the Pittsburgh office, from the most senior shareholder to the newest associate, has remained sharply focused upon effective defense litigation. This sharp definition of our practice has allowed our attorneys to develop an understanding and appreciation of the goals and special needs of corporate and insurance carrier clients with regard to reporting, case handling and efficient resolution of claims and litigation matters.

 Back To Top


Additional Locations

  • Westport, Connecticut
  • 191 Post Road West
  • Westport, Connecticut 06880
    • Telephone: 203-221-2785
    • Fax: 203-221-2665
  • Wilmington, Delaware
  • Nemours Building
  • 1007 North Orange Street, Suite 600
  • Wilmington, Delaware 19801
    • Telephone: 302-552-4300
    • Fax: 302-552-4340
  • Fort Lauderdale, Florida
  • 100 Northeast 3rd Avenue, Suite 1100
  • Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33301
    • Telephone: 954-847-4920
    • Fax: 954-627-6640
  • Jacksonville, Florida
  • 200 West Forsyth Street, Suite 1400
  • Jacksonville, Florida 32202
    • Telephone: 904-358-4200
    • Fax: 904-355-0019
  • Orlando, Florida
  • Landmark Center One
  • 315 East Robinson Street, Suite 550
  • Orlando, Florida 32801-1948
    • Telephone: 407-420-4380
    • Fax: 407-839-3008
  • Tampa, Florida
  • 201 East Kennedy Boulevard, Suite 1100
  • Tampa, Florida 33602
    • Telephone: 813-898-1800
    • Fax: 813-221-5026
  • Mount Laurel, New Jersey
  • 15000 Midlantic Drive, Suite 200
  • P.O. Box 5429 (08054)
  • Mount Laurel, New Jersey 08054
    • Telephone: 856-414-6000
    • Fax: 856-414-6077
  • Roseland, New Jersey
  • 425 Eagle Rock Avenue, Suite 302
  • Roseland, New Jersey 07068
    • Telephone: 973-618-4100
    • Fax: 973-618-0685
  • Melville, New York
  • 105 Maxess Road, Suite 303
  • Melville, New York 11747
    • Telephone: 631-232-6130
    • Fax: 631-232-6184
  • New York, New York
  • Wall Street Plaza
  • 88 Pine Street, 21st Floor
  • New York, New York 10005-1801
    • Telephone: 212-376-6400
    • Fax: 212-376-6490
  • Westchester, New York
  • 287 Bowman Avenue, Suite 404
  • Purchase, New York 10577
    • Telephone: 914-977-7300
    • Fax: 914-977-7301
  • Cincinnati, Ohio
  • 312 Elm Street, Suite 1850
  • Cincinnati, Ohio 45202
    • Telephone: 513-372-6800
    • Fax: 513-372-6801
  • Cleveland, Ohio
  • 127 Public Square, Suite 3510
  • Cleveland, Ohio 44114-1291
    • Telephone: 216-912-3800
    • Fax: 216-344-9006
  • Allentown, Pennsylvania
  • 4905 West Tilghman Street, Suite 300
  • Allentown, Pennsylvania 18104
    • Telephone: 484-895-2300
    • Fax: 484-895-2303
  • Doylestown, Pennsylvania
  • 10 North Main Street, 2nd Floor
  • Doylestown, Pennsylvania 18901-4318
    • Telephone: 267-880-2020
    • Fax: 215-348-5439
  • Erie, Pennsylvania
  • 717 State Street, Suite 701
  • Erie, Pennsylvania 16501
    • Telephone: 814-480-7800
    • Fax: 814-455-3603
  • Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
  • 100 Corporate Center Drive, Suite 201
  • Camp Hill, Pennsylvania 17011
    • Telephone: 717-651-3500
    • Fax: 717-651-9630
  • Scranton, Pennsylvania
  • 50 Glenmaura National Boulevard
  • Moosic, Pennsylvania 18507
    • Telephone: 570-496-4600
    • Fax: 570-496-0567

 Back To Top


Personnel Information

Managing Shareholder


Scott G. Dunlop

Managing Attorney

Pittsburgh, PA

Practice Areas
  • Professional Liability
  • Public Entity and Civil Rights Litigation
Admitted
  • Pennsylvania, 1984
  • U.S. District Court, Western District of Pennsylvania
  • U.S. Supreme Court, 1988
  • U.S. Court of Appeals, Third Circuit, 1994
Additional Biographical Details:

Pennsylvania Super Lawyer, 2005; Who's Who in American Law; Classes/Seminars Taught: "Local Government Immunity in Pennsylvania," Client Seminar, October 2018; "Litigation Ramifications of Bullying in School," School Claims Services LLC, December 12, 2014; "Employment Claims Under 42 U.S.C. Section 1983," Pennsylvania Bar Institute's Employment Law Institute West, Pittsburgh, 2006; "Road Risk: Sources of Liability Arising from Highway Design and Maintenance," Pennsylvania State Association of Township Supervisors, Pittsburgh, Meadville and Harrisburg, 2004; "Federalization of Land Use," Pennsylvania Bar Institute, Pittsburgh, 2002; "Writing and Revising Student Handbooks and Other Related School Issues in Pennsylvania," Lorman Education Services, Pittsburgh, 2002

Memberships:
  • Federal and Allegheny County (Gender Equality Committee) Bar Associations
  • Academy of Trial Lawyers of Allegheny County (Diversity Committee)
  • Defense Research Institute
Reported Cases:
Eichenlaub v. Township of Indiana, 385 F.3d 274 (3d Cir. 2004)
Education:
  • West Virginia University, B.A., History (cum laude), 1981
  • West Virginia University, B.S., 1981
  • University of Pittsburgh School of Law, J.D., 1984
Honors:
Order of the Barristers; National Merit Scholar; West Virginia University Merit Scholar; Phi Kappa Phi

Born: 1958

 Back To Top


Special Counsel


Shannon Voll Poliziani

Pittsburgh, PA

Practice Areas
  • Health Care Liability
  • General Liability
Admitted
  • Pennsylvania, 1997
  • U.S. District Court, Western District of Pennsylvania, 2009
Memberships:
  • Allegheny County Bar Association
  • Barrister, W. Edward Sell Inn of Court
Education:
  • The Pennsylvania State University, B.A., 1994
  • University of Houston Law Center, J.D., 1996

 Back To Top


Senior Counsel


William J. Walls

Pittsburgh, PA

Practice Areas
  • Workers' Compensation
Admitted
  • Pennsylvania, 1980
  • West Virginia, 2011
  • U.S. Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces, 1981
  • U.S. District Court, Western District of Pennsylvania, 1985
  • U.S. District Court, District of New Jersey
  • U.S. Court of Appeals, Third Circuit, 1993
  • U.S. District Court, Southern District of West Virginia, 2011
Additional Biographical Details:

AV® Preeminent™ by Martindale-Hubbell®; Pennsylvania Super Lawyer (2009); Classes/Seminars Taught: "Handling the Workers' Compensation Case from Start to Finish," National Business Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, April 24, 2013; "Ethical Considerations in Litigation The Workers' Compensation Case," NBI, 2012; "Workers' Compensation Update," Pennsylvania Chamber of Commerce, 2006

Memberships:
  • Pennsylvania and Allegheny County (Workers' Compensation Council, 2008-2010) Bar Associations
Publications:
  • Author: "Hearing Loss under Act I of 1995," Defense Digest, Marshall Dennehey
Education:
  • Washington & Jefferson College, B.A., 1975
  • Duquesne University School of Law, J.D., 1980
Honors:
Kappa Scholar (1972)
Military:
U.S. Army, Judge Advocate General's Corp. (1981-1985); Ret. Lt. Col., U.S. Army Reserve (1985-2005)

Born: 1953

 Back To Top


Resident Shareholders


Thomas P. Birris

Co-Chair, Hospitality and Liquor Liability Practice Group

Pittsburgh, PA

Practice Areas
  • Product Liability
  • General Liability
  • Premises Liability
  • Retail Liability
  • Hospitality
  • Liquor Liability
  • Automobile Liability
  • Construction Injury Litigation
  • Amusements, Sports and Recreation Liability
  • Public Entity and Civil Rights Litigation
Admitted
  • Pennsylvania, 1987
Additional Biographical Details:

AV® Preeminent™ by Martindale-Hubbell®; Attorneys Listed by Best Lawyers in America-Personal Injury Litigation-Defendants (2010-Present); Classes/Seminars Taught: "Pennsylvania Liquor Liability Claims," Hospitality Mutual Insurance Company, June 2015

Memberships:
  • Pennsylvania and Allegheny County Bar Associations
Education:
  • University of Pittsburgh, B.A. (magna cum laude), 1984
  • Duquesne University, J.D., 1987
Law Review:
Duquesne Law Review (Member, 1985-1986; Executive Editorial Board, 1986-1987)

Born: 1957


John F. Deasy

Pittsburgh, PA

Practice Areas
  • General Liability
  • Product Liability
  • Hospitality
  • Liquor Liability
  • Premises Liability
  • Amusements, Sports and Recreation Liability
Admitted
  • Pennsylvania, 1991
  • U.S. District Court, Western District of Pennsylvania
  • U.S. Court of Appeals, Third Circuit
Additional Biographical Details:

AV® Preeminent™ by Martindale-Hubbell®; Pennsylvania Super Lawyer (2017-2019)

Memberships:
  • Allegheny County Bar Association
Publications:
  • Author: “Pennsylvania’s Relaxed Standard for Proving Intoxication in Civil Cases,” Defense Digest, Vol. 24, No. 4, December 2018
Education:
  • University of Pittsburgh, B.A. Political Science, 1987
  • University of Pittsburgh School of Law, J.D., 1991

Born: 1964


Daniel W. Deitrick

Pittsburgh, PA

Practice Areas
  • Workers' Compensation
  • Employment Law
Admitted
  • Pennsylvania, 1993
  • U.S. District Court, Western District of Pennsylvania
Additional Biographical Details:

AV® Preeminent™ by Martindale-Hubbell®; Attorneys Listed by Best Lawyers in America-Workers' Compensation Law-Employers (2020); Classes/Seminars Taught: "Workers' Compensation Case Law Update," Marshall Dennehey Workers' Compensation Seminar, October 18, 2018; "Bad Eggs: Defending Injuries Stemming from Violence in the Workplace," Marshall Dennehey Workers' Compensation Seminar, October 19, 2017; "Understanding Medical Records," Marshall Dennehey Workers' Compensation Seminar, October 19, 2016; "Local Government Pension Management Best Practices and Updates," October 10, 2014

Memberships:
  • American (Law Practice Management Section), Pennsylvania (Workers' Compensation Section) and Allegheny County (Workers' Compensation Section) Bar Associations
  • Pittsburgh Claims Association
Publications:
  • Author: “Employer’s Future Subrogation Rights Under Section 319 of the Workers’ Compensation Act Limited by Pennsylvania Supreme Court,” Defense Digest, Vol. 25, No. 1, March 2019
Reported Cases:
Collier v. WCAB (PRS/Engles Trucking), 805 A.2d 1267 (Pa.Cmwlth. 2002) (app. denied, 818 A.2d 505 Pa. 2003); Barnes v. WCAB (Midland-Ross. Corp.), 684 A.2d 1107 (Pa. Cmwlth. 1996)
Education:
  • Villanova University, B.A. (cum laude), 1990
  • Duquesne University School of Law, J.D., 1993
Honors:
Pi Sigma Alpha National Political Science Honor Society

Born: 1968


Steven J. Forry

Pittsburgh, PA

Practice Areas
  • Health Care Liability
  • General Liability
Admitted
  • Pennsylvania, 1994
  • New York
  • U.S. District Court, Western District of Pennsylvania
Additional Biographical Details:

AV® Preeminent™ by Martindale-Hubbell®; Pennsylvania Super Lawyer Rising Star (2006); Pennsylvania Super Lawyer (2014-2019); Classes/Seminars Taught: "Health Care Summit: Tackling Emerging Trends in Health Care Beyond Tort Reform," (Speaker), Philadelphia, PA, 2009

Memberships:
  • Pennsylvania, New York State, West Virginia and Allegheny County Bar Associations
Publications:
  • Author: "Obamacare: Potential Effects on Future Damages in Medical Malpractice Litigation in Pennsylvania," Defense Digest, Vol. 20, No. 3, September 2014
  • "Getting Sanctions Under The Certificate of Merit Rules"
Education:
  • The Pennsylvania State University, B.A., 1991
  • Ohio Northern University, Pettit College of Law, J.D., 1994

Michael A. Karaffa

Pittsburgh, PA

Practice Areas
  • Automobile Liability
  • Product Liability
  • General Liability
  • Construction Injury Litigation
  • Fraud/Special Investigation
  • Trucking and Transportation Litigation
  • Property Litigation
Admitted
  • Pennsylvania, 1981
  • U.S. District Court, Western District of Pennsylvania
  • U.S. Court of Appeals, Third Circuit, 1984
  • U.S. Tax Court, 1985
  • U.S. Supreme Court, 1990
  • U.S. District Court, Middle District of Pennsylvania, 1999
  • U.S. District Court, Eastern District of Pennsylvania, 2002
Additional Biographical Details:

AV® Preeminent™ by Martindale-Hubbell®; Pennsylvania Super Lawyer (2014-2019); Classes/Seminars Taught: "Advanced Torts," University of Pittsburgh School of Law, May 2015

Memberships:
  • American, Pennsylvania and Allegheny County Bar Associations
Publications:
  • Author: "The Pennsylvania Supreme and Superior Courts Clarify the 'Retained Control' Exception to General Rule of Landowner's Nonliability for Independent Contractors," Defense Digest, Vol. 22, No. 1, March 2016
Education:
  • University of Pittsburgh, B.S. (magna cum laude), 1978
  • Duquesne University School of Law, J.D., 1981
Fraternity Information:
Kappa Kappa Psi; Omicron Delta Epsilon
Honors:
Moot Court Board

Born: 1956


Paul D. Krepps

Pittsburgh, PA

Practice Areas
  • Professional Liability
  • Employment Law
  • Public Entity and Civil Rights Litigation
Admitted
  • Pennsylvania, 1994
  • West Virginia, 1995
  • U.S. District Court, Northern District of Ohio, 2016
Additional Biographical Details:

Municipal Police Officer Education and Training Commission (MPOETC); Florida State Certified Police Field Training Officer; AV® Preeminent™ by Martindale-Hubbell®; Classes/Seminars Taught: "Mass Disturbances: Law and Litigation," Allegheny County Law Enforcement, March 2019; "The Wrong Side of the Caption, 42 USC 1983 Turns the Tables on Prosecutors," Pennsylvania District Attorneys Association/Institute, July 2015; "Hot Topics for Local Law Enforcement," Washington County Chiefs of Police Association, May 2015; "Beyond Asking Questions at a Deposition," November 2014; "Challenging §8553 - Tort Claims Act Damages Cap and Damages Recoverable Under the Political Subdivision Tort Claims Act," September 2013; "Employment Liability in the Cyber Age," Marshall Dennehey/AIG Employment Seminar, Pittsburgh, PA, May 2, 2013; "Leadership Course for Law Enforcement Executives," Pennsylvania Chiefs of Police Association, December 2011; "Reasonable Expectation of Privacy, the Danger in Enforcing the Wiretap Act," Police Departments from Beaver, Allegheny and Butler Counties, August 2011; "Liability Issues for Municipalities Hosting National Events: Including the Development of Security Plans, Training and Equipping Police Officers, and Executing Law Enforcement and Security Functions During These Complex Events," City of Honolulu, HI, January 2010; "Exposure in Education Cases Related to Due Process and Bullying, Client Seminar, August 2010; "Assisted the Municipal Police Officers Education and Training Commission," Pennsylvania State Police - Preparation and Training to Training Officers, 2006, 2008; "Law Enforcement Issues and Liability," Pennsylvania State Association of Township Supervisors & Delaware Valley Insurance Trust, October 2008; "Constitutional Litigation in the Current Political Climate," Pennsylvania Bar Institute, June 2008; "Section 1983 Civil Rights," Continuing Legal Education, Pennsylvania Bar Association; "Implications of Scott v. Harris on Police Pursuits and Beyond," Lorman Education Services; "Development of a Critical Incident Protocol - City of Pittsburgh, Allegheny County," City of Pittsburgh Law Department, Various Chiefs of Police Organizations; "Effective Law Enforcement Through Police Accountability," City of Pittsburgh and Various Municipal Law Enforcement Agencies; "Police Rights and Liabilities," Various Chiefs of Police Organizations; "Police Accountability," Pennsylvania State Association of Township Supervisors and Various Police Departments; "Effective Witness Preparation," Continuing Legal Education for In-House Lawyer Training; "Terrorism and An Analysis of the Events of 9/11," American Inns of Court and University of Pittsburgh; "Workplace Violence," Housing Authority of the City of Pittsburgh; "Disability of Deriliction?," Claims Management Advisory Board Seminar for a Major Municipal Insurance Carrier; "Litigating an Uninsured Auto Case in West Virginia," Maryland Auto Insurance Fund; "Civil/Criminal Forfeiture and RICO," "Police and Drug Enforcement," and "Immigration and Law Enforcement," University of Pittsburgh; "Crime Scene Investigation," University of Pittsburgh and Various Law Enforcement Agencies; "Property Crimes," "Organized Crime; Asian and African American," "Organized Crime; Russia," and "Community Consideration of Policing Immigrant Populations," University of Pittsburgh; "Probation and Parole," and "Crime Prevention and Property Crimes," St. Vincent College; "Introduction to Criminology," Beaver County Community College

Memberships:
  • Pennsylvania and Allegheny County Bar Associations
  • West Virginia State Bar
  • Academy of Trial Lawyers of Allegheny County
Publications:
  • Author: "Close Judicial Scrutiny of Qualified Immunity And Municipal Liability In An Excess Use-Of-Force Death Case," Defense Digest, Vol. 10, No. 4, December 2012
  • "Palsfraf Revisited - Brisbine v. Outside Inn School of Experiential Education," Defense Digest, Vol. 8, No. 3, September 2002 and Lawyer's Journal, Vol. 5 No. 3, February 7, 2003
Certifications:
  • Certified I.A.I. Crime Scene Analyst
Reported Cases:
Tonya L. Carswell, et ux. v. Borough of Homestead, et al, 381 F.3d 235 (3rd. Cir. 2004)
Education:
  • The Pennsylvania State University, B.S., 1979
  • Duquesne University School of Law, J.D., 1994
Honors:
American Criminal Justice Association (Honor Society)

Born: 1958


Douglas C. LaSota

Pittsburgh, PA

Practice Areas
  • Commercial Litigation
  • Construction Injury Litigation
  • Architectural, Engineering and Construction Defect Litigation
  • Environmental & Toxic Tort Litigation
  • Class Action Litigation
  • Real Estate Errors & Omission Liability
Admitted
  • Pennsylvania, 1997
  • West Virginia, 2019
  • U.S. District Court, Western District of Pennsylvania
  • U.S. District Court, District of Delaware
  • Supreme Court of Pennsylvania
  • U.S. Court of Appeals, Third Circuit
  • U.S. Court of Federal Claims
Additional Biographical Details:

AV® Preeminent™ by Martindale-Hubbell®

Memberships:
  • Allegheny Bar Association (Chair, Construction Law Section)
Publications:
  • Author: “Inspect the Uninspected: Current Pennsylvania Law Regarding Tort Liability Under the Tort Claims Act for Third-Party Municipal Building Inspectors,” Defense Digest, Vol. 25, No. 3, September 2019
Education:
  • West Virginia University, B.S., 1987
  • Duquesne University School of Law, J.D., 1997

Joseph V. Lesinski

Pittsburgh, PA

Practice Areas
  • General Liability
  • Automobile Liability
  • Product Liability
  • Hospitality
  • Liquor Liability
  • Commercial Litigation
  • Construction Injury Litigation
  • Architectural, Engineering and Construction Defect Litigation
Admitted
  • Pennsylvania, 2012
  • U.S. District Court, Western District of Pennsylvania, 2014
Additional Biographical Details:

Classes/Seminars Taught: "Vagaries of Product Liability Laws in the Post-Tincher Time Period," Client Seminar, May 2018; "Construction Defect Litigation: From A to Z," National Business Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, April 2015

Memberships:
  • Pennsylvania and Allegheny County Bar Associations
Education:
  • University of Dayton, B.A. Political Science, 2003
  • Saint Louis University School of Law, J.D., 2006

Christian D. Marquis

Pittsburgh, PA

Practice Areas
  • Professional Liability
  • Automobile Liability
  • Commercial Litigation
  • Public Entity and Civil Rights Litigation
  • Construction Injury Litigation
  • Architectural, Engineering and Construction Defect Litigation
  • Environmental & Toxic Tort Litigation
Admitted
  • Pennsylvania, 2000
  • U.S. District Court, Western District of Pennsylvania
  • U.S. Court of Appeals, Third Circuit, 2007
Additional Biographical Details:

AV® Preeminent™ by Martindale-Hubbell®; Attorneys Listed by Best Lawyers in America-Pittsburgh "Lawyer of the Year" Personal Injury Litigation-Defendant (2019); Personal Injury Litigation-Defendants (2014-Present); Pennsylvania Super Lawyer Rising Star (2005-2006)

Memberships:
  • Pennsylvania and Allegheny County Bar Associations
Publications:
  • Author: "The First Amendment's Protection Applies To Certain Comments Directed Toward Police Officers," Defense Digest, Vol. 13, No. 4, December 2007
  • "Nanty-Glo Rule Applies to Preliminary Objections Raising Issues of Fact," Defense Digest, Vol. 10, No. 1, March 2004
Reported Cases:
Osiris Enterprises v. Borough of Whitehall, 877 A.2d 560 (Pa. Cmwlth. 2005); Osiris Enterprises v. Borough of Whitehall, 398 F. Supp. 2d 400 (W.D. Pa. 2005)
Education:
  • Saint Vincent College, B.A., 1995
  • The Pennsylvania State University, B.S., 1996
  • New England School of Law, J.D. (Dean's List), 1999

Born: 1973


James A. McGovern

Pittsburgh, PA

Practice Areas
  • Professional Liability
  • Commercial Litigation
  • Securities and Investments Professional Liability
  • Architectural, Engineering and Construction Defect Litigation
  • Insurance Agents & Brokers Liability
Admitted
  • Virginia, 1990
  • Pennsylvania, 1991
  • District of Columbia, 1992
  • U.S. Supreme Court, 2002
Additional Biographical Details:

AV® Preeminent™ by Martindale-Hubbell®; Attorneys Listed by Best Lawyers in America-Personal Injury Litigation-Defendants (2013-Present)

Memberships:
  • Pennsylvania and Allegheny County Bar Associations
  • Professional Liability Defense Federation
Publications:
  • Regular Contributor: "Legal Updates for Insurance Agents & Brokers," 2018-Present
  • Author: "Pennsylvania Imposes Additional Requirements on Insurance Agents and Companies Regarding the Sale or Replacement of Annuities," Legal Updates for Insurance Agents & Brokers, September 24, 2018
Education:
  • University of Pittsburgh, B.S. (magna cum laude), 1987
  • The George Washington University Law School, J.D., 1990
Clerkship:
Law Clerk, Hon. Robert I. Richter, Superior Court of the District of Columbia

Born: 1957


Estelle K. McGrath

Pittsburgh, PA

Practice Areas
  • Professional Liability
  • Employment Law
  • Public Entity Defense and Civil Rights
  • Insurance Services
  • Real Estate Errors & Omissions Liability
Admitted
  • Pennsylvania, 2001
  • West Virginia, 2011
  • U.S. District Court, Western District of Pennsylvania
  • U.S. District Court, Southern District of West Virginia
  • U.S. District Court, Northern District of West Virginia, 2017
Additional Biographical Details:

AV® Preeminent™ by Martindale-Hubbell®; Pennsylvania Super Lawyer Rising Star, (2008, 2012-2016)

Memberships:
  • Pennsylvania, West Virginia and Allegheny County Bar Associations
  • FETA 2013-present
  • Council on Litigation Management
  • Professional Liability Underwriting Society
  • Claims and Litigation Management Alliance
Publications:
  • Author: "House Bill No. 88 to be Signed by Governor Rendell," What's Hot in Workers' Comp, Volume 7, No. 12, December 2003
  • "Supreme Court Reverses Caso Decision," What's Hot in Workers' Comp, Volume 7, No. 12, December 2003
  • "Course of Employment Argument Saves Employer," Defense Digest, Volume 9, No. 2, June 2003
  • "Board's Decision Reversed Where Claimant Failed to Present Evidence," Lawyers Journal, The Journal of the Allegheny County Bar Association, June 27, 2003
  • "Borough of Lewistown v. Pennsylvania Labor Relations Board: The Supreme Court of Pennsylvania Holds Arbitration Award Final and Binding When Participating Joint Employer Failed to Appeal the Award," 9 WIDENER J. PUB. L 615, 2001
Education:
  • Juniata College, B.A., 1998
  • Widener University, J.D., 2001
Law Review:
Editor-in-Chief, Widener Law Journal
Clerkship:
Appellate Clerk, Hon. Joseph T. Doyle, President Judge Emeritus, Commonwealth Court, Media, PA
Honors:
The Carroll C. Arnold Award in Communication

Patricia A. Monahan

Pittsburgh, PA

Practice Areas
  • Employment Law
  • Insurance Services
  • Public Entity and Civil Rights Litigation
Admitted
  • Pennsylvania, 1990
  • U.S. Supreme Court, 1999
Additional Biographical Details:

AV® Preeminent™ by Martindale-Hubbell®; Classes/Seminars Taught: "Employment Liability in the Cyber Age," Marshall Dennehey/AIG Employment Seminar, Pittsburgh, PA, May 2, 2013; Speaker on Various Topics Including Employment Claims, Civil Rights Litigation, Federal Practice and Insurance Bad Faith

Memberships:
  • American, Pennsylvania and Allegheny County Bar Associations
Publications:
  • Author: “I’ve Been Served With a Writ of Summons. Now What?,” Defense Digest, Vol. 24, No. 4, December 2018
  • "Defending Claims While Working Within the Tripartite Relationship," The Legal Intelligencer, Insurance Law Supplement, August 30, 2016
  • "When is an Accident Not an Accident?" Life, Health & Disability, the newsletter of the DRI's Life, Health & Disability Committee, November 21, 2014
  • "Pennsylvania Superior Court Is the First State Appellate Court To Address the Unfair Insurance Practices Act Protection for Victims of Abuse," Defense Digest, Vol. 19, No. 3, September 2013
  • "Pennsylvania Superior Court Panel Has Found That an Insured's Conduct Is Not Subject to Scrutiny in a Subsequent Bad Faith Law Suit," Defense Digest, Vol. 17, No. 3, September 2011
  • "Are Damages For Emotional Distress Recoverable In a Pennsylvania Bad Faith Lawsuit Even Though the Bad Faith Statute Does Not Provide For Such Damages?," Defense Digest, Vol. 16, No. 1, March 2010
  • "Top Court Limits The Scope of a Public Employee's First Amendment Retaliation Claim," Defense Digest, Vol. 12, No. 3, September 2006
  • "The First Amendment's Rising Popularity in Municipal Employment Litigation," Defense Digest, Vol. 10, No. 2, June 2004
  • "Is Every Worker With a Physical Impairment Afforded Protection Under the ADA?," Defense Digest, Vol. 8, No. 1, March 2002­
  • "Pennsylvania Supreme Court Limits Employment At-Will," Defense Digest, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1999
  • Co-Author: The Anatomy of a Civil Rights Malicious Prosecution Claim," Defense Digest, Vol. 8, No. 1, March 2002
Reported Cases:
Creasy v. Slippery Rock Area School District, 2013 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 80523; Whitesell v. Dobson Communications, 102 Fair Empl. Prac. Cas. (BNA), aff'd 2009 LEXIS 25791 (U.S. App.); Diede v. City of McKeesport, 654 F. Supp. 2d 363 (W.D. Pa. 2009); Moore v. Darlington Township, 690 F. Supp. 2d 378 (W.D. Pa. 2009); Heller v. Fulare, 454 F. 3d 174 (3d Cir. 2006); Keefer v. Durkos, 2006 US Dist LEXIS 68519 Loughren v. USAA, 909 A.2d 896 (Pa. Super. 2006); Loughren v. USAA, 909 A.2d 896 (Pa. Super. 2006); Borough of West Mifflin v. Lancaster, 45 F.3d 780 (1995)
Education:
  • University of Florida, B.S. Business Admin. (with honors), 1986
  • University of Pittsburgh School of Law, J.D., 1990

Born: 1965


Kristin L. Pieseski

Pittsburgh, PA

Practice Areas
  • Health Care Liability
  • Product Liability
  • General Liability
Admitted
  • Pennsylvania, 1995
  • West Virginia, 2010
Additional Biographical Details:

AV® Preeminent™ by Martindale-Hubbell®; Classes/Seminars Taught: University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine Annual Medical Malpractice Seminar, 2001-Present

Memberships:
  • American, Pennsylvania, West Virginia and Allegheny County Bar Associations
  • Academy of Trial Lawyers of Allegheny County
  • Defense Research Institute
  • Claims and Litigation Management Alliance
Education:
  • Duquesne University, B.A. (magna cum laude), 1992
  • Duquesne University School of Law, J.D., 1995
Honors:
Phi Eta Sigma, Lambda Sigma, Phi Chi and Justice Louis L. Manderino Honor Societies

Patrick T. Reilly

Pittsburgh, PA

Practice Areas
  • Product Liability
  • Hospitality
  • Liquor Liability
  • Automobile Liability
  • General Liability
  • Asbestos and Mass Tort Litigation
Admitted
  • Pennsylvania, 2006
  • U.S. District Court, Eastern District of Pennsylvania
Additional Biographical Details:

Northside Common Ministries (Advisory Board Member); Pennsylvania Super Lawyer Rising Star (2013-2019); Classes/Seminars Taught: "Discoverability and Proper Use of Claim Notes," Berkley Mid-Atlantic, October 2011

Memberships:
  • Allegheny County Bar Association
  • Claims and Litigation Management Alliance
Publications:
  • Author: "Should Mandatory Liquor Liability Insurance Be in PA's Future?" The Legal Intelligencer Liquor Law Supplement, February 25, 2020
  • "Compulsory Arbitration Useful in Small-Exposure Cases," The Legal Intelligencer, ADR Supplement, January 20, 2015
  • “Don't Bother Trying to Fix It, We'll Just File Suit!,” Defense Digest, Vol. 18, No. 1, March 2012
  • "Substituted Judgment: Does Pennsylvania Law Provide an Appropriate Standard for Withdrawal of Life Support in Non-terminal Patients?" Duquesne Law Review, Volume 44, Spring 2006
Education:
  • Saint Joseph's University, B.A., History (magna cum laude, Phi Beta Kappa), 2003
  • Duquesne University School of Law, J.D., 2006
Law Review:
Associate Recent Decisions Editor, Duquesne Law Review

Dennis J. Roman

Pittsburgh, PA

Practice Areas
  • Professional Liability
  • Commercial Litigation
Admitted
  • Pennsylvania, 1986
  • U.S. Court of Appeals, Third Circuit
Additional Biographical Details:

AV® Preeminent™ by Martindale-Hubbell®; Attorneys Listed by Best Lawyers in America-Pittsburgh Legal Malpractice - Defendants "Lawyer of the Year" (2013), Legal Malpractice Law-Defendants (2006-Present); Pennsylvania Super Lawyer (2006-2007; 2009-2011, 2019); Classes/Seminars Taught: "Lawyer Exposures Under The 'Continuous Representation Rule' and Conflicts of Interest," Pennsylvania Bar Association In-House CLE Program, September 27, 2005; "Abusive Advocacy: Frivolous Prosecution & Frivolous Defense," Lorman Education Series, February 7, 2001; "Series 2000: Professional Liability, Ethics and Professionalism," Pennsylvania Bar Association In-House CLE Program, May 21, 1999; "The Admission of Judicial Opinions from Underlying Proceedings in Subsequent Litigation Against Attorneys," Academy of Trial Lawyers of Allegheny County, April 20, 1999; "Plaintiff's Ultimate Weapon: The Use of Judicial Opinions from Underlying Proceedings in Litigation Against Attorneys," Pennsylvania Westport Defense Panel Conference, March 18-19, 1999; "Managing Conflicts of Interests and Handling Outside Collateral Pursuits," Pennsylvania Bar Association - Professional Liability Committee Annual Meeting, CLE Program, May 13, 1998

Memberships:
  • American (Associate Member, Standing Committee on Lawyer's Professional Liability), Pennsylvania (Professional Liability Committee, 1987-Present) and Allegheny County (Judiciary Committee, 2004-Present; Chair, Lawyer Insurance Committee, 1998-2004; Governing Council, Young Lawyers Section, 1990-1991) Bar Associations
  • House of Delegates (2003-Present)
  • Pennsylvania Defense Institute
Publications:
  • Author: "Enforceability of Arbitration Clauses in Attorney Retainer Agreements in Pennsylvania," Counterpoint, May 31, 2000
  • Co-Author: "Amicus Curiae Briefs, Pennsylvania Bar Association Glenbrook Leasing Co. v. Beausang, 881 A.2d 1266 (Pa. 2005)," (Principal Author); Ferencz v. Milie, 535 A.2d 59 (Pa. 1987)
Education:
  • Duquesne University, B.S., 1979
  • Duquesne University School of Law, J.D., 1982

Born: 1957


Charlene S. Seibert

Pittsburgh, PA

Practice Areas
  • Professional Liability
  • Commercial Litigation
Admitted
  • Pennsylvania, 2006
  • U.S. District Court, Western District of Pennsylvania
Additional Biographical Details:

Pennsylvania Super Lawyer Rising Star (2018-2019)

Memberships:
  • American, Pennsylvania (Professional Liability Committee) and Allegheny County (Lawyer Insurance and Amicus Curiae Brief Committees) Bar Associations
  • Defense Research Institute
Publications:
  • Co-Author: "Pennsylvania Legal Malpractice Handbook," 2017 Edition, Published by Marshall Dennehey Warner Coleman & Goggin
  • Author: "Another Crack In the Dam: “Narrow” Class of Beneficiaries Who May Sue Attorney Without an Attorney-Client Relationship Not So Narrow After All," Defense Digest, Vol. 21, No. 2, June 2015
Education:
  • John Carroll University, B.A. Political Science (magna cum laude), 2002
  • University of Pittsburgh School of Law, J.D. (cum laude, Order of the Coif), 2006
Honors:
Kathy L. Barber Outstanding Scholar Award in Political Science; Pi Sigma Alpha Political Science Honor Society; Herman L. Foreman Award in Labor Law

Brett C. Shear

Pittsburgh, PA

Practice Areas
  • Health Care Liability
Admitted
  • Pennsylvania, 2003
  • West Virginia, 2010
  • U.S. District Court, Western District of Pennsylvania, 2004
  • U.S. District Court, Northern and Southern Districts of West Virginia, 2010
  • U.S. District Court, Eastern District of Pennsylvania, 2012
  • U.S. Court of Appeals, Third Circuit, 2014
Additional Biographical Details:

Classes/Seminars Taught: "Uncovering and Proving Financial Fraud," Pennsylvania Bar Institute, February 2014

Memberships:
  • Pennsylvania, West Virginia and Allegheny County Bar Associations
Publications:
  • Author: "The EHR Report: Communication, Social Media, and Legal Vulnerability," Internal Medicine News, April 27, 2017
  • “The Shrinking Scope of the Peer Review Protection Act,” Defense Digest, Vol. 21, No. 3, September 2015
Education:
  • West Virginia University, B.S. (cum laude), 2000
  • University of Pittsburgh School of Law, J.D. (cum laude), 2003

Teresa O. Sirianni

Pittsburgh, PA

Practice Areas
  • Professional Liability
  • Employment Law
  • Premises Liability
  • Retail Liability
  • Public Entity and Civil Rights Litigation
  • School Leaders’ Liability
Admitted
  • Pennsylvania, 2003
  • U.S. District Court, Western District of Pennsylvania
Additional Biographical Details:

Pennsylvania Super Lawyer Rising Star (2013); Classes/Seminars Gaught: "Effective Practices for General Educators in Inclusive Classrooms," November 18, 2018; "The Role of the General Educator in the Special Education Process," January 15, 2018; "How A Student Can Make A Successful Return to School – Liabilities and Responsibilities – Concussion Presentation," February 28, 2014; "Employment Liability in the Cyber Age," Marshall Dennehey / AIG Employment Seminar, Pittsburgh, PA, May 2, 2013; "Employment in Crisis: Workplace Security & Lessons from the Sandusky Case," Marshall Dennehey, Erie, PA, October 11, 2012; Speaker on Various Topics Involving Employment Claims and Federal Practice

Memberships:
  • Allegheny County Bar Association
Publications:
  • Author: "EEOC Guidance on the PDA: Has Anything Changed?" Defense Digest, Vol. 20, No. 4, December 2014
Education:
  • The Pennsylvania State University, B.S., 1995
  • Duquesne University School of Law, J.D., 2002

Stuart H. Sostmann

Co-Chair, Construction Injury Practice Group

Pittsburgh, PA

Practice Areas
  • Product Liability
  • Automobile Liability
  • Hospitality
  • Liquor Liability
  • Commercial Litigation
  • Premises Liability
  • Retail Liability
  • General Litigation
  • Construction Injury Litigation
  • Property Litigation
  • Architectural, Engineering and Construction Defect Litigation
Admitted
  • Pennsylvania, 1999
Additional Biographical Details:

AV® Preeminent™ by Martindale-Hubbell®; Pennsylvania Super Lawyer (2018-2019); Classes/Seminars Taught: "An Overview of Construction Defect Litigation in Pennsylvania," Nationwide Insurance Company, December 16, 2014; "Commercial Defense Practice in New York, New Jersey & Pennsylvania," Nationwide Insurance Company, December 5, 2014; "Brief Overview of Pennsylvania Contractual Indemnity and Additional Insured Issues," Nationwide Insurance Company, April 2012; "Discoverability and Proper Use of Claim Notes," Berkley Mid-Atlantic, October 2011

Memberships:
  • American and Allegheny County Bar Associations
  • Pennsylvania Defense Institute (West Regional Director)
Publications:
  • Author: “Yes! Waivers of Liability for Recreational Activities Are Still Effective in Pennsylvania,” Defense Digest, Vol. 23, No. 1, March 2017
  • "Timing Is Everything, Even for Bad Faith Claims," Defense Digest, Vol. 6, No. 1, February 2000
Education:
  • University of Pittsburgh, B.A. Political Science (cum laude), 1996
  • University of Pittsburgh School of Law, J.D., 1999
Honors:
CALI Future Excellence Award in Federal Income Taxation

Born: 1974


Danielle M. Vugrinovich

Pittsburgh, PA

Practice Areas
  • Premises Liability
  • Retail Liability
  • Automobile Liability
  • Employment Law
  • Consumer Financial Services Litigation & Compliance
  • Asbestos and Mass Tort Litigation
  • Public Entity and Civil Rights Litigation
Admitted
  • Pennsylvania, 2001
  • U.S. District Court, Western District of Pennsylvania
  • U.S. Court of Appeals, Third Circuit, 2017
Additional Biographical Details:

Pennsylvania Super Lawyer Rising Star, Civil Litigation-Defense (2016); Classes/Seminars Taught: "Stop! Gavel Time!: A Collection and Cross Claim Mock Trial," National Creditors Bar Association, Fall Convention, Nashville, TN, October 2018; "We Don't Know Where We Are, But We Are Making Really Good Time: Keeping Up with Ever Changing Technology and the Conundrums It Presents," National Creditors Bar Association, Spring Convention, Austin, TX, May 2018; "Solving the 'Meaningful Involvement' Puzzle," National Creditors Bar Association, Washington, D.C., Fall Convention, October 2017; "Recent Litigation Trends and How to Avoid Them," National Association for Retail Collection Attorneys Spring Convention, May 2015; "Primer on the Fair Credit Reporting Act," Pennsylvania Bar Institute, June 10, 2014; "Reasonable Investigations" under the Fair Credit Reporting Act," ACA International Convention, San Diego, CA, July 2013; "Primer on the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act," Pennsylvania Bar Institute, June 18, 2013; "Employment Liability in the Cyber Age," Marshall Dennehey/AIG Employment Seminar, Pittsburgh, PA, May 2, 2013; "Primer on the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act," Pennsylvania Bar Institute, 2010-2011; "The FDCPA: Jerman v. Carlisle and the Impact on the Bona Fide Error Defense," Pennsylvania Bar Institute, 2010

Memberships:
  • Pennsylvania and Allegheny County Bar Associations
  • ACA International (The Association of Credit and Collection Professionals)
  • The National Creditors Bar Association
Publications:
  • Author: "Best Practices Regarding Stacking Waivers in Pennsylvania", Legal Updates for Insurance Agents & Brokers, June 2019
  • "The Need for Clarity in Counseling Customers," Legal Updates for Insurance Agents & Brokers, November 16, 2018
  • "Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Are Not Protected Classes under Title VII…Or Are They?," Defense Digest, Vol. 23, No. 2, June 2017
  • "No Proof That Firing Was Retaliation for Intent to Promote Black Employee," SHRM Court Reports, March 4, 2016
  • "Qualified Immunity Not Strictly for Governmental Employees Anymore," Defense Digest, Vol. 18, No. 3, September 2012
  • "The Supreme Court Considers the Privacy Rights of a Public Employee's Communications on an Electronic Device Provided by the Public Employer," Defense Digest, Volume 16, No. 3, September 2010
Education:
  • Duquesne University, B.A., 1998
  • Duquesne University School of Law, J.D., 2001

Anthony J. Williott

Pittsburgh, PA

Practice Areas
  • Health Care Liability
  • General Liability
  • Product Liability
  • Long-Term Care Liability
Admitted
  • Pennsylvania, 1985
  • U.S. District Court, Western District of Pennsylvania
  • U.S. Court of Appeals, Third Circuit, 1988
Additional Biographical Details:

AV® Preeminent™ by Martindale-Hubbell®; Pennsylvania Super Lawyer (2005, 2013-2016); Classes/Seminars Taught: "Civil Court Judicial Forum," Moderator, National Business Institute, April 12, 2019; "Civil Court Judicial Forum," National Business Institute, April 13, 2018; "The Rules of Evidence: A Practical Toolkit," National Business Institute, July 31, 2015; "Evidence and Expert Testimony," National Business Institute, April 30, 2014; "The Good, the Bad and the Ugly: Hot Topics in Long Term Care Litigation," Health Executive Institute, March 7, 2014; "What to Expect When You're Expecting (A Trial)," Health Executive Institute, October 19, 2012; "Litigating to Win Through Advanced Trial Advocacy," National Business Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, June 7, 2012; "Documentation – It's Really That Important," April 24, 2011; "Mechanics of Pennsylvania Civil Procedure," April 21, 2011; "Strictly Speaking: An Overview Of Products Liability Law in Pennsylvania," November 13, 2008; "New Pennsylvania Suggested Jury Instructions in Medical Malpractice Cases," April 4, 2006; "Keys To Successful Pre-Trial Preparation," June 15, 2005; "Uninsured and Underinsured Motorist Law in Pennsylvania," August 10, 2004; "The Nuts And Bolts Of The Medical Malpractice Case," April 1, 2004; "Pennsylvania Personal Injury Practice For Paralegals," May 20, 1998; "Insurance Bad Faith In Pennsylvania and West Virginia," 1993

Memberships:
  • Allegheny County Bar Association
  • Fellow, Academy of Trial Lawyers of Allegheny County
  • Fellow, Allegheny County Bar Foundation
Publications:
  • Author: “There Are No Hotels in Smethport, Pennsylvania,” Defense Digest, Vol. 25, No. 2, June 2019
  • "Plaintiff's Counsel Pies Self in Face," Defense Digest, Vol. 18, No. 3, September 2012
  • "Keeping Faith," Best's Review, March 2001
  • "Understanding O'Donnell – When Aggressive Defense Can Lead To Bad Faith," The Lawyers Journal, October 20, 2000
  • "The Pennsylvania Automobile Lemon Law," Pittsburgh Legal Journal, September 5, 1996
Education:
  • The Pennsylvania State University, B.S. Finance, 1978
  • Duquesne University School of Law, J.D., 1985
Honors:
Order of Barristers; Gourley Cup (Trial Moot Court: Winning Team and Runner-Up Best Advocate, 1985)

 Back To Top


Resident Associates


  • Derek A. Candela
  • Nicole L. Carnevale
  • Bryon M. Chowka
  • Jillian M. Corbett
  • Taylor E. Denk
  • Gregory P. Graham
  • Brad E. Haas
  • Ryan A. Hauck
  • Ryan M. Krescanko
  • Erin N. Margolin
  • Darren M. Newberry
  • Sarah C. Norcott
  • Alexander B. Possino
  • Lauren E. Purcell
  • Morgan M. J. Randle
  • Sharon Rice Stritmatter
  • Michael D. Winsko

 Back To Top


Pennsylvania Insurance Law Digest

 Back To Top




 Back To Top


(See profile under Philadelphia, PA for additional information)(Revisors of the Pennsylvania Insurance Law Digest for this Publication)


Contact Our Team | About Best's Insurance Professional Resources